Osteoporosis affects millions of people around the world, and it is not possible to change some of the primary risk factors, such as aging. However, more and more environmental risk factors are coming to light, and air pollution appears to be one of them.
A dislocation of the kneecap occurs when the patella comes completely out of its groove on the end of the thigh bone (femur), and comes to rest on the outside of the knee joint. Kneecap dislocations usually occur as a significant injury the first time the injury occurs, but the kneecap may dislocate much more easily thereafter.
Internal impingement is a specific type of shoulder injury that is seen primarily in throwing athletes.
Chondromalacia patellae is a term used to describe the damage or softening of the cartilage on the underside of the kneecap. It is similar to patellofemoral pain syndrome (runner's knee) in which the pain is felt under and around the kneecap. This condition is common among young athletics but may also occur in older adults who have arthritis of the knee.
Hip bursitis is a common problem that causes pain over the outside of the upper thigh and hip joint. A bursa is a fluid-filled sac that allows smooth motion between two surfaces.